martes, 26 de agosto de 2014

Install Apache2, PHP5 And MySQL Support On CentOS 6.5 (LAMP)

Version 1.0
Authors: Till Brehm <t [dot] brehm [at] howtoforge [dot] com>, Falko Timme <ft [at] falkotimme [dot] com>
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Last edited 04/03/2014
There is a new version of this tutorial available for CentOS 7.
LAMP is short for Linux, Apache, MySQL, PHP. This tutorial shows how you can install an Apache2 webserver on a CentOS 6.4 server with PHP5 support (mod_php) and MySQL support.
I do not issue any guarantee that this will work for you!

1 Preliminary Note

In this tutorial I use the hostname with the IP address These settings might differ for you, so you have to replace them where appropriate.

2 Installing MySQL 5

To install MySQL, we do this:
yum -y install mysql mysql-server
Then we create the system startup links for MySQL (so that MySQL starts automatically whenever the system boots) and start the MySQL server:
chkconfig --levels 235 mysqld on
/etc/init.d/mysqld start
Set passwords for the MySQL root account:
[root@server1 ~]# mysql_secure_installation
In order to log into MySQL to secure it, we'll need the current
password for the root user. If you've just installed MySQL, and
you haven't set the root password yet, the password will be blank,
so you should just press enter here.
Enter current password for root (enter for none):
OK, successfully used password, moving on...
Setting the root password ensures that nobody can log into the MySQL
root user without the proper authorisation.
Set root password? [Y/n] <-- ENTER
New password: <-- yourrootsqlpassword
Re-enter new password: <-- yourrootsqlpassword
Password updated successfully!
Reloading privilege tables..
... Success!
By default, a MySQL installation has an anonymous user, allowing anyone
to log into MySQL without having to have a user account created for
them. This is intended only for testing, and to make the installation
go a bit smoother. You should remove them before moving into a
production environment.
Remove anonymous users? [Y/n] <-- ENTER
... Success!
Normally, root should only be allowed to connect from 'localhost'. This
ensures that someone cannot guess at the root password from the network.
Disallow root login remotely? [Y/n] <-- ENTER
... Success!
By default, MySQL comes with a database named 'test' that anyone can
access. This is also intended only for testing, and should be removed
before moving into a production environment.
Remove test database and access to it? [Y/n] <-- ENTER
- Dropping test database...
... Success!
- Removing privileges on test database...
... Success!
Reloading the privilege tables will ensure that all changes made so far
will take effect immediately.
Reload privilege tables now? [Y/n] <-- ENTER
... Success!
Cleaning up...

All done! If you've completed all of the above steps, your MySQL
installation should now be secure.
Thanks for using MySQL!

3 Installing Apache2

Apache2 is available as a CentOS package, therefore we can install it like this:
yum -y install httpd
Now configure your system to start Apache at boot time...
chkconfig --levels 235 httpd on
... and start Apache:
/etc/init.d/httpd start
Now direct your browser to, and you should see the Apache2 placeholder page:
Click to enlarge
Apache's default document root is /var/www/html on CentOS, and the configuration file is /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf. Additional configurations are stored in the /etc/httpd/conf.d/ directory.

4 Installing PHP5

We can install PHP5 and the Apache PHP5 module as follows:
yum -y install php
We must restart Apache afterwards:
/etc/init.d/httpd restart

5 Testing PHP5 / Getting Details About Your PHP5 Installation

The document root of the default web site is /var/www/html. We will now create a small PHP file (info.php) in that directory and call it in a browser. The file will display lots of useful details about our PHP installation, such as the installed PHP version.
vi /var/www/html/info.php
Now we call that file in a browser (e.g.
Click to enlarge
As you see, PHP5 is working, and it's working through the Apache 2.0 Handler, as shown in the Server API line. If you scroll further down, you will see all modules that are already enabled in PHP5. MySQL is not listed there which means we don't have MySQL support in PHP5 yet.

6 Getting MySQL Support In PHP5

To get MySQL support in PHP, we can install the php-mysql package. It's a good idea to install some other PHP5 modules as well as you might need them for your applications. You can search for available PHP5 modules like this:
yum search php
Pick the ones you need and install them like this:
yum -y install php-mysql
In the next step I will install some common PHP modules that are required by CMS Systems like Wordpress, Joomla and Drupal:
yum -y install php-gd php-imap php-ldap php-odbc php-pear php-xml php-xmlrpc php-mbstring php-mcrypt php-mssql php-snmp php-soap php-tidy curl curl-devel
APC is a free and open PHP opcode cacher for caching and optimizing PHP intermediate code. It's similar to other PHP opcode cachers, such as eAccelerator and Xcache. It is strongly recommended to have one of these installed to speed up your PHP page.
APC can be installed as follows:
yum -y install php-pecl-apc
Now restart Apache2:
/etc/init.d/httpd restart
Now reload in your browser and scroll down to the modules section again. You should now find lots of new modules there, including the APC module:
Click to enlarge

7 phpMyAdmin

phpMyAdmin is a web interface through which you can manage your MySQL databases.
First we enable the RPMforge repository on our CentOS system as phpMyAdmin is not available in the official CentOS 6.5 repositories:
Import the RPMforge GPG key:
rpm --import
On x86_64 systems:
yum -y install
On i386 systems:
yum -y install
phpMyAdmin can now be installed as follows:
yum -y install phpmyadmin
Now we configure phpMyAdmin. We change the Apache configuration so that phpMyAdmin allows connections not just from localhost (by commenting out the <Directory "/usr/share/phpmyadmin"> stanza):
vi /etc/httpd/conf.d/phpmyadmin.conf
#  Web application to manage MySQL

#<Directory "/usr/share/phpmyadmin">
#  Order Deny,Allow
#  Deny from all
#  Allow from

Alias /phpmyadmin /usr/share/phpmyadmin
Alias /phpMyAdmin /usr/share/phpmyadmin
Alias /mysqladmin /usr/share/phpmyadmin
Next we change the authentication in phpMyAdmin from cookie to http:
vi /usr/share/phpmyadmin/
/* Authentication type */
$cfg['Servers'][$i]['auth_type'] = 'http';
Restart Apache:
/etc/init.d/httpd restart
Afterwards, you can access phpMyAdmin under


Mysql 5.5 en Centos 6.5

MySQL 5.5 on CentOS/RHEL 6.5 and 5.10 via Yum

Redhat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) 5.x and CentOS 5.x have been providing MySQL 5.0 in it’s distribution since that was the active stable branch when RHEL 5.0 was released on 14th March 2007 (CentOS 5.0 on 12th April 2007). Since then, Sun/Oracle have released MySQL 5.1 and MySQL 5.5, so the Webtatic Yum repository has added them to it’s web stack, which now provides updated versions of all the AMP in LAMP.
Update 2014-03-01 – mysql55 packages have been renamed to mysql55w packages (as well as mysql51 to mysql51w). This is to ensure it doesn’t clash with SCL packages.
Update 2013-05-11 – Updated guide to include Webtatic EL6 mysql55w installation and simplfied package upgrade
First, to set up the yum repository, install the webtatic-release RPM based on your CentOS/RHEL release:
Webtatic EL6 for CentOS/RHEL 6.x
rpm -Uvh
Webtatic EL5.1 for CentOS/RHEL 5.x:
rpm -Uvh
If you already have MySql client or server installed (rpm -q mysql mysql-server), then you can upgrade using the following method:
yum install mysql.`uname -i` yum-plugin-replace
yum replace mysql --replace-with mysql55w
“yum install mysql” is only there to make sure yum-plugin-replace can resolve dependencies correctly if only mysql-server was installed.
Otherwise, to install MySql client and server, then run:
yum install mysql55w mysql55w-server
You should upgrade existing tables before setting the server to become a production machine, which can be done by starting the server and running the mysql_upgrade script (this may take time depending on the size of the database).
service mysqld start
# This will issue a password prompt for the user. If you don't have a root user password, remove the "-p"
mysql_upgrade -u root -p

MySQL 5.1

The Webtatic 5 repository for CentOS/RHEL 5.x includes mysql51-* packages for installing MySQL 5.1. This can be installed by replacing in the above commands “mysql55w” with “mysql51w”.
As MySQL 5.1 is standard in CentOS/RHEL 6.x, it is not included in the Webtatic EL 6 repository.


Como hacer un circuito de motocross

viernes, 22 de agosto de 2014

Atributos, ficheros y directorios (Linux)

En linux es posible asignarle atributos a los ficheros, esto permite incrementar el nivel de seguridad. Es posible por ejemplo proteger un archivo para que no se pueda eliminar.
Para ver los atributos de un fichero:
[root@tester1 prueba]# lsattr
-------------e- ./fich.txt
-------------e- ./fich2.txt
La modificación de los atributos se puede realizar con la ayuda de:
chattr [ -RVf ] [ -v version ] [ mode ] files...
Para obtener la documentación completa lo mejor es recurrir al man que para eso está. Los atributos que me paracen más interesantes son:
  • a, No se puede borrar el fichero, solo hacer un append.
  • i, Inmutable, no se puede borrar, modificar ni crear hard links sobre el.
Para activar un atributo se antepone un + a la opción y para desactivarlo un -.
Por ejemplo evitar la eliminación de un fichero pero si append:
[root@tester1 prueba]# ls -l
total 24
-rw-r-xr--. 1 root root 9376 mar 6 16:50 fich2.txt
-rw-r-xr--. 1 root root 9376 mar 6 16:51 fich.txt
[root@tester1 prueba]# lsattr
-------------e- ./fich.txt
-------------e- ./fich2.txt
[root@tester1 prueba]# chattr +a fich.txt
[root@tester1 prueba]# lsattr
-----a-------e- ./fich.txt
-------------e- ./fich2.txt
[root@tester1 prueba]# rm fich.txt
rm: ¿borrar el fichero regular «fich.txt»? (s/n) s
rm: no se puede borrar «fich.txt»: Operación no permitida
[root@tester1 prueba]# cat fich2.txt >> fich.txt
[root@tester1 prueba]# ls -l
total 32
-rw-r-xr--. 1 root root 9376 mar 6 16:50 fich2.txt
-rw-r-xr--. 1 root root 18752 mar 6 16:52 fich.txt
Proteger un fichero:
[root@tester1 prueba]# chattr -a fich.txt
[root@tester1 prueba]# lsattr
-------------e- ./fich.txt
-------------e- ./fich2.txt
[root@tester1 prueba]# chattr +i fich.txt
[root@tester1 prueba]# lsattr
----i--------e- ./fich.txt
-------------e- ./fich2.txt
[root@tester1 prueba]# rm fich.txt
rm: ¿borrar el fichero regular «fich.txt»? (s/n) s
rm: no se puede borrar «fich.txt»: Operación no permitida
[root@tester1 prueba]# cat fich2.txt >> fich.txt
-bash: fich.txt: Permiso denegado
[root@tester1 prueba]# ln fich.txt lfich.txt
ln: creating hard link «lfich.txt» => «fich.txt»: Operación no permitida
[root@tester1 prueba]# ln -s fich.txt lfich.txt
El posible proteger directorios enteros de forma recursiva con:
chattr -R +i prueba
Yo lo veo bastante útil para proteger ficheros de configuración de aplicaciones.